Divorce Lawyers in Delhi.

Advocate Prachi Singh

(Family Law Attorney at New Delhi)

A-381,Defence Colony,New Delhi-110024

www.legesjurisassociates.com

Mob: +91-9811-11-4265

Advocate Prachi Singh is Family Law Lawyer, practicing in Supreme Court, Delhi High Court and Districts Courts in Delhi. She is contesting and advising on divorce cases, foreign and NRI divorce cases, child custody cases, International family law cases, ,Divorce Transfer Petition in Supreme Court, DV Act Cases, Maintenance Cases..etc..She has good knowledge in Family Laws Cases of India.

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Dissolution of Marriage or Divorce Laws in India

According to the Indian divorce laws there are mainly two ways to obtain you divorce, the mutual divorce and the contested divorce. In case of a mutual divorce, you can have a talk with your estranged spouse to come to a settlement and get a “no-fault divorce”. If you are seeking a contested divorce, you can file your divorce on the grounds that are specified under the particular Indian marriage act that you are entitled to. There are separate divorce laws for Hindus, Christians, Parsis and Muslims. Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 for filing for divorce in India. Laws are even laid down for Inter-cast marriages under the Special Marriage Act, 1956.
Procedure for Dissolution of marriage

Contested Divorce
Annulment or Nullity
Divorce by Mutual Consent.

The same laws according to which the marriage was solemnized govern dissolution of marriages, and the rights consequent to the dissolution.

Governing Laws

Hindus – The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
Christians – The Divorce Act,1869, The Indian Christian Marriage Act,1872
Parsis – The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act,1936
Muslims – Shariat Law, The Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act,1939
Inter-cast/Secular – Special Marriage Act, 1954,
The Foreign Marriage Act,1969

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Divorce on Grounds of Cruelty under Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

“Divorce.– (1) Any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground that the other party xxx xxx xxx (ia) has, after the solemnization of the marriage, treated the petitioner with cruelty;”

Under the statutory provision cruelty includes both physical and mental cruelty. The legal conception of cruelty and the kind of degree of cruelty necessary to amount to a matrimonial offence has not been defined under the Act. Probably, the Legislature has advisedly refrained from making any attempt at giving a comprehensive definition of the expression that may cover all cases, realising the danger in making such attempt. The accepted legal meaning in England as also in India of this expression, which is rather difficult to define, had been ‘conduct of such character as to have caused danger to life, limb or health (bodily or mental), or as to give rise to a reasonable apprehension of such danger’ (Russel v. Russel [(1897) AC 395 and Mulla Hindu Law, 17th Edition, Volume II page 87].

Click here to know more :https://advocateprachi.wordpress.com/2019/02/14/divorce-on-grounds-of-cruelty/

(Where the wife leveled false allegations of illicit relationship with another Lady.)

In Hemwanti Tripathi vs. Harish Narain Tripathi, 181 (2011) DLT 237, it is also held that :
“14……..That the ratio of Ashok Kumar v. Santosh Sharma (supra) and Savitri Bachman (supra) wherein it was held that a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty can be passed on the strength of false, baseless, scandalous and malicious allegations in the written statement by one party on the other is thus found applicable to the facts of the present case because in the case at hand the husband has not led any evidence in support of his allegations.
As per the settled legal position, casting such aspersions on the character of the other spouse has the affect of causing deleterious affect on the mind of such spouse and the same is a worse form of cruelty

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Divorce on Grounds of irretrievable broken down.

In the matter of : Sardar Avtar Singh vs Amarjeet Kaur Gandhi ( Delhi High Court)
As the parties are living separately for more than sixteen years and there has been no reconciliation and the marriage has been irretrievable broken down, it is just and proper that the marriage between the parties is dissolved by decree of divorce for the reasons stated in paras 12 to 19.

In the another matter : Satish Sitole Vs Smt. Ganga( The Apex Court )

“Having dispassionately considered the materials before us and the fact that out of 16 years of marriage the appellant and the respondent had been living separately for 14 years, we are also convinced that any further attempt at reconciliation will be futile and it would be in the interest of both the parties to sever the matrimonial ties since the marriage has broken down irretrievably.”

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Divorce on Grounds of desertion.

“It may be noted only after the amendment of the said Act by the amending Act 68 of 1976, desertion per se became a ground for divorce. On the question of desertion, the High Court held that in order to prove a case of desertion, the party alleging desertion must not only prove that the other spouse was living separately but also must prove that there is an animus deserendi on the part of the wife and the husband must prove that he has not conducted himself in a way which furnishes reasonable cause for the wife to stay away from the matrimonial home.”

Click Here to know more :https://advocateprachi.wordpress.com/2019/04/08/divorce-on-grounds-of-desertion/

 

 

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Divorce on grounds of irretrievable broken down of Marriage and Cruelty.

Divorce on Grounds of  irretrievable broken down.

In the matter of : Sardar Avtar Singh vs Amarjeet Kaur Gandhi ( Delhi High Court)

As the parties are living separately for more than sixteen years and there has been no reconciliation and the marriage has been irretrievable broken down, it is just and proper that the marriage between the parties is dissolved by decree of divorce for the reasons stated in paras 12 to 19.

  1. Besides the instances of cruelty detailed in the petition, there was another instance of cruelty i.e. the scandalous allegations leveled by the respondent against the appellant of illicit relationship with one Parvinder Kaur. This allegation was made by the respondent in the cross examination of the appellant as against all settled law, the learned Trial Court wrongly rejected this ground of cruelty by simply holding that one single act cannot be treated as cruelty. The relevant part of the judgment to this effect is reproduced hereunder :

“…The counsel for petitioner has contended that the respondent has also inflicted cruelty upon the petitioner as during cross examination, it was suggested to him that he had illicit relations with one Parvinder Kaur and was residing with the said woman. The counsel for petitioner objected to said cross examination of the petitioner being beyond pleadings of the respondent, so, counsel for respondent was not allowed to put further question to that effect to the petitioner. Admittedly, there are no pleadings of the respondent that the petitioner had illicit relations with one Parvinder Kaur and this suggestion to the petitioner was given beyond pleadings. Even perusal of the testimony of the respondent shows that once she had tried to contact the petitioner when he was residing at Rohini, she found one another lady inside the house and petitioner on that occasion had asked the respondent to leave the place or he would break her legs and throw her from the fourth floor. This incident appeared to have taken place subsequent to the filing of the petition and it should have been brought on record by the respondent through her counsel as subsequent event, however, it has not been done so in the present case. No doubt, leveling of scandalous allegations without proof do amount to mental cruelty but in the present case, keeping in view the totality of the circumstances and the conduct of the petitioner one single act of the respondent that she disclosed before the court that petitioner was found living with another woman cannot be treated as cruelty for dissolution of their marriage, particularly, when the respondent till date wants to keep her thirty years old marriage with the petitioner alive….”

  1. It is the admitted position that the parties are living separately since January, 1995, i.e. for more than sixteen years. The allegations of cruelty is also such which makes reconciliation between the parties have “irretrievable broken down” and as such there is no reason to carry on with the broken or dead marriage and continuation with such a marriage will cause further mental cruelty to the appellant. In such cases, it is expedient and necessary to dissolve the marriage with decree of divorce as it has been held in Samar Ghosh vs. Jaya Ghosh, (2007) 4 SCC 511, the relevant part is reproduced hereunder :

“Once the parties have separated and the separation has continued for a sufficient length of time and one of them has presented a petition for divorce, it can well be presumed that the marriage has broken down. The court, no doubt, should seriously make an endeavor to reconcile the parties; yet, if it is found that the breakdown is irreparable, then divorce should not be withheld. The consequences of preservation in law of the unworkable marriage which has long ceased to be effective are bound to be a source of greater misery for the parties.”

In the another matter : Satish Sitole Vs Smt. Ganga( The Apex Court )

“Having dispassionately considered the materials before us and the fact that out of 16 years of marriage the appellant and the respondent had been living separately for 14 years, we are also convinced that any further attempt at reconciliation will be futile and it would be in the interest of both the parties to sever the matrimonial ties since the marriage has broken down irretrievably.”

Divorce on Grounds of Cruelty under Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

(Where the wife leveled false allegations of illicit relationship with another Lady.)

In Hemwanti Tripathi vs. Harish Narain Tripathi, 181 (2011) DLT 237, it is also held that :

“14……..That the ratio of Ashok Kumar v. Santosh Sharma (supra) and Savitri Bachman (supra) wherein it was held that a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty can be passed on the strength of false, baseless, scandalous and malicious allegations in the written statement by one party on the other is thus found applicable to the facts of the present case because in the case at hand the husband has not led any evidence in support of his allegations. What surprises this Court the most is that despite the fact that the Trial Court gave the entire findings in favour of the Appellant but still passed the judgment against the Appellant merely on the ground that the acts alleged by the Petitioner against the Respondent at best can be termed as wear and tear of daily life and does not amount to cruelty. The learned Trial Court further held against the Appellant because she failed to produce any close relative including her uncle who was living in neighborhood to prove the instance of beatings given by the Respondent on various dates. This Court fails to comprehend as to how such a view could be taken by the learned Trial Court as clearly serious and malicious allegations of the Appellant having relationship with one Sadhu and her staying out of the house during nights also levelled by the Respondent and as per the settled legal position, casting such aspersions on the character of the other spouse has the affect of causing deleterious affect on the mind of such spouse and the same is a worse form of cruelty. It has not been denied by the Respondent that no evidence was led by him to prove that the Appellant used to go out during night to stay with that Sadhu. The Respondent has also not given any reasons in the Ex. PW 1/1 to severe his relationship with the Appellant.

In the matter of : AJEET PANWAR Vs BABITA ( Delhi High Court).

  1. It is a case where not only false allegations were made against the appellant/husband and in-laws but they were also got arrested and later on acquitted on charges being found to be false. This in itself amounts to cruelty. Even the attempt by the respondent/wife to commit suicide so as to get his in-laws including unmarried Nanad and married Nanad implicated in itself is an act of cruelty on her part upon her husband and in-laws.
  2. Learned Judge Family Court failed to consider all these aspects while dismissing the petition seeking divorce on account of cruelty. Learned Judge Family Court failed to note that in matrimonial pleadings appellant was not required to establish the case beyond reasonable doubt like any criminal trials but on preponderance of probabilities. Both the acts independently were sufficient to prove cruelty and grant of a decree of divorce to the appellant/husband.
  3. The learned Judge Family Court in our estimate failed to approve and appreciate the pleadings of the parties and their evidence under correct legal perspective.
  4. The impugned judgment is not sustainable and is set aside.