Divorce on the ground of adultery.

The prayer of the appellant for divorce on the ground of adultery cannot be allowed as he has not disclosed the name of the person with whom the respondent is having illicit relations nor such person has been made party in the petition filed by him. Rule 10 of the Hindu Marriage (Punjab). Rules, 1956 provides that if a petition is presented by husband for divorce on the ground of adultery, then he is required to implead the alleged adulterer, a co-respondent. It has been held in Parvati v. Shiv Ram 1988 Civil Court Cases 539 (H.P.) and Mirapala Venkataramana v. Mirapala Peddiraga II(2000) Divorce and Matrimonial Cases 40 that in a petition for divorce filed by the husband on the ground of adultery, it is necessary for the petitioner to implead the alleged adulterer as co-respondent. In case the husband has not impleaded the alleged adulterer, the petition filed by him is not maintainable being non joining of the necessary party.

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Punjab-Haryana High Court
 
Pawan Kumar vs Aruna Rani on 6 November, 2007
Equivalent citations: (2009) 149 PLR 628
Author: R Madan
Bench: R Madan
JUDGMENT R.S. Madan, J.
1. This is a husband’s appeal filed against the judgment and decree dated 28.8.2001 passed by Shri K.C.Puri, the then Additional District Judge, Amritsar, in a Petition being No. 195/1992, under Section 13(1) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, as amended for dissolution of marriage by a decree of divorce, which was dismissed.
2. In brief the facts of the case are that the appellant-husband filed a petition under Section 13 of the Hindu Marriage Act for dissolution of marriage by a decree of divorce against the respondent-wife on the ground of desertion and cruelty. But later on by way of amendment, ground of adultery was also added after about a period of four years of filing of the divorce petition.
3. The marriage between the parties was solemnized on 11.5.1981 according to Hindu rites and ceremonies at Sujanpur, District Gurdaspur. Both the parties resided together as husband and wife and cohabited with each other at Amritsar. Out of this wedlock, two children, namely, Rachna and Raghurai were born. The case of the appellant that right from the inception of marriage , the conduct of the respondent was very cruel. She always used to insult and abuse him in front of his friends and relatives. Despite this, he had been tolerating the act of the respondent with a hope that better sense would prevail upon her with the passage of time and she would improve herself but all in vain. While highlighting the acts of cruelty, the appellant alleged that the respondent has been frequent visitor to her parents’ house soon after the inception of the marriage and without the consent of the appellant which was not to the liking of the appellant. It was also alleged that the respondent left the house of the appellant in January 1985 and continuously remained at her parent’s house for a period of 3-1/2 years. The appellant was also hurt by he respondent by her unbearable words who used to state that she was married against her wishes and she does not like to keep martial relationship with him. It was alleged that the respondent stayed for 7/8 days soon after the marriage with the appellant and then went back to her parents’ house from where she returned after 1-1/2 months.
4. On 8.7.1988 the father and brother of the respondent gave a writing in which it was mentioned that she had left the house of the appellant 3-1/2 years back leaving behind the children at the mercy of the appellant. During this period, her attitude and conduct was worst then before and she refused to share bed with him. The appellant had failed a petition for divorce on 13.2.1990 in the court of Additional District Judge, Amritsar and notice was given to the respondent for 4.4.1990. However, during the pendency of this petition, a panchayat was convened on 26.5.1990 in which an agreement was effected between the parties that the respondent should be provided a separate accommodation as well as Rs. 900/- per month as maintenance as she refused to live with him. She was given residence in House No. 3429/1, Gali Kakezian, Katra Baghian, Amritsar. The divorce petition was dismissed as withdrawn having been compromised.
5. The appellant started suspecting Ashok Kumar and Sarwan Singh employees of the police department having illicit relations with the respondent. According to the appellant, on 2.8.1992 he caught red handed Ashok Kumar with the help of his friends, namely, Sunil Kumar, Gurdial and Billa etc. and inhabitants of the Mohalla. Due to this act of the respondent, the appellant had received acute mental shock and agony on his mind. He, thus, pleaded that this incident is an act of mental cruelty as well as that the respondent is living in adultery.
6. The respondent-wife on receipt of notice of divorce petition, contested the same by filing written statement and denied all the allegations made therein. She, however, submitted that she was forced to go to her parents’ house for delivery of child as the appellant and his family members were not willing to take the responsibility for delivery charges and other expenses. She also submitted that after the birth of second child, she was thrown out of the house on the pretext of not bringing sufficient gifts. It was pleaded that all these allegations have been made against the respondent just to defame her and to create a ground for divorce. The appellant and his family members right from the inception of marriage were not happy with the dowry articles. As her parents were unable to meet their illegal demands of dowry, she was not allowed to come to the matrimonial home. It was on account of these facts that she was forced to live at the house of her parents. She also denied that the appellant ever visited the house of the respondents parents. She also denied the allegations of adultery levelled against her. Rather she submitted that Ashok Kumar is friendly to the appellant and they have shops adjacent to each other. She also denied that on 2.8.1992, Ashok Kumar was caught red handed by the petitioner, his friends and inhabitants of the mohalla with her. At the end, she pleaded that the appellant cannot be allowed to take a advantage of his own wrongs.
7. Replication was filed by the appellant and controverted the averments made in the written statement and reiterated the facts set out in the divorce petition.
The trial Court framed the following issues:
1. Whether the marriage between the parties is liable to be dissolved on the grounds mentioned in the divorce petition? OPP
2. Relief.
8. In order to prove his case, the appellant examined AW1 Rajesh Sehgal, AW2 Gurdial Billa, AW3 Krishan Lal, AW4 Sunil Kumar, AW5 Kuldip Rai and himself appeared as AW6. The respondent examined RW1 Amar Nath, RW2 Tilak Raj Gupta, RW3 Varinder Kumar, RW4 Darbari Lal, RW5 Yashpal, and herself appeared as RW6. Exhibit AX/1 is a statement of Amar Nath, AX/2 is the copy of the statement of Aruna Kumari made in the complaint filed by her on 12.8.1992 under Sections 354/452 I.P.C. etc against her husband (appellant). AX/3 is a compromise arrived at between Aruna Kumari and Pawan Kumar on 26.3.1990 with respect to providing maintenance at the rate of Rs. 900/- per month and separate accommodation. Mark A to E are the receipts with regarding to receipt of maintenance. Exhibit AX/7 is the undertaking given by the respondent that she will not file petition under Section 125 C.P.C. to claim maintenance in case the appellant sent money order and she will not harass him by summoning him for non-payment of maintenance. Exhibit AX/9 is the copy of the complaint filed by the respondent under Sections 354/452 I.P.C. Exhibit AZ is the order of framing charges against the appellant. Exhibit RX is a deed of pardon written by Pawan Kumar wherein he has given assurance that he will not file false complaints against Yashpal. Exhibit RW6/1 is the order passed in a petition filed by the appellant against the respondent which was the result of compromise arrived at between the parties. Exhibit RW6/5 is the copy of statement given by Aruna Kumari respondent in a petition under Section 125 Cr.P.C. Exhibit RW6/6 is the copy of statement of Aruna Kumar made during examination-in-chief and RW6/7 is her cross-examination.
After due analysis and appreciation of evidence led by the parties, the trial court dismissed the petition, holding that the appellant had failed to prove all the three grounds i.e. cruelty, desertion and adultery on which the decree of divorce against the respondent was sought. He, thereafter, came up in appeal to this Court.
I have heard the learned Counsel for the parties and have carefully gone through the record.
9. Learned Counsel for the appellant contended that entire averments made in the petition with respect to acts of cruelty, desertion and adultery have been proved against the respondent. The learned trial Court ignored the evidence led by the appellant in this regard and has not appreciated the same. It is admitted by the respondent that she remained at her parent’s house for about 3-1/2 years and the appellant was not allowed to visit the house of his in-laws. In this way, the husband was deprived of his right to enjoy the matrimonial life by causing mental cruelty and desertion. In this connection, learned Counsel referred to Kanwaljit Singh Pannu. v. Smt. Parveen 2006(1) Civil Court Cases 212 (P&H), wherein it was held that, “desertion means withdrawing from the matrimonial obligation i.e. not permitting or allowing co-habitation between the parties.”
10. Learned Counsel for the appellant submitted that due to cruel behaviour and attitude of the respondent, who used to insult and abuse the appellant, her brother admitted all her guilt and gave it in writing on 8.7.1988. When she refused to live with the appellant a panchayat was convened for resolving the dispute and an agreement was effected before the panchayat between the parties that she will live separately and will be given Rs. 900/- per month as maintenance by the appellant. This act of the respondent for not living with the appellant is itself a ground for desertion.
11. Learned Counsel for the appellant further submitted that on 2.8.1992, the respondent was found in the company of Ashok Kumar son of Satpal and Sarwan Kumar in the presence of his friends Sunil Kumar, Gurdial Billa and inhabitants of the mohalla. The appellant had received acute shock and mental agony due to this incident which is sufficient for grant of divorce on the ground of adultery. Instead of feeling ashamed of her this act, the respondent filed complaint under Sections 354/452 I.P.C. etc. against him in the court of JMIC levelling allegations of tress-pass, molestation, etc. It is not disputed that the parties are residing in the same vicinity but in the different house. The appellant thereby deprived of his matrimonial rights. He has been a victim of cruel behaviour right from the date of inception of marriage. He submitted that once a wife filed a false criminal complaint against his husband, this itself means cruelty and the husband is entitled to the decree of divorce. Reference was made to G.V.N. Kameswara Rao v. G. Jabilli 2002(2) Supreme Court Cases 296, wherein it was held that, “traumatic experiences suffered by complainant spouse as a result of the persistent non-cooperation and hostile attitude of the respondent spouse, can be included in the’ expression “cruelty”. It was also held that, “false police complaint and consequent loss of reputation and standing in society at the instance of one’s spouse, would amount to cruelty.”
12. Learned Counsel for the appellant further submitted that the parties are living separately from each other which means that there is an irretrievable breakdown of marriage. In this connection he placed reliance on Durga Prasanna Tripathy v. Arundhati Tripathy A.I.R. 2005 S.C. 3297:(2005)7 S.C.C. 353, wherein it was held that, “parties living separately for 14 years means that there is an irretrievable breakdown of marriage and it has been rendered a complete dead wood.”
13. Learned Counsel for the appellant further contended that once it is proved on the record that wife is living separately for the last so many years, the marriage is a broken marriage and it should be a statutory ground for divorce. He relied upon Naveen Kohli v. Neelu Kohli , wherein it was observed, “when parties are living separately for a sufficient length of time and one of them brings a petition for divorce decree, it can be presumed that marriage has broken down irretrievably. It will be against the interest of both the parties as well as against interest of the society to refuse to grant decree for divorce in such cases. Parliament recommended to pass such an amendment.”
14. Learned Counsel for the appellant submitted that it has come on the record that she had left the house of the appellant in the year 1985 and returned on 8.7.1988 when her brother gave in writing that she had left the matrimonial house as the misunderstanding cropped up between the parties and the factum of her absence from the matrimonial house for a period of three years stand admitted in this writing. It was on account of this compromise that the respondent started living with the appellant but she refused to share bed with him. This act of the respondent, according to the counsel for the appellant, even though living under the same roof and not sharing bed with the appellant, amounts to desertion.
15. On the other hand, learned Counsel for the respondent contended that it is a case where the appellant has miserably failed to prove all the three grounds for divorce i.e. cruelty, desertion and adultery. In support of his arguments, he submitted that the appellant cannot be allowed to take advantage of his own wrongs. Even if it is admitted that respondent-wife stayed at her parents’ house for a period of 3-1/2 years but the appellant never visited there to enquire about her welfare. It was on 8.7.1988 that a compromise was arrived at between the parties and the respondent started living at the house of the respondent. Therefore, the act of desertion if any stands condoned and it cannot, by any stretch of interpretation, be termed a case of desertion on the part of the respondent.
16. Learned Counsel for the respondent also submitted that previously the appellant has filed a petition for divorce against the respondent, despite the fact that she was residing at his house. A compromise was effected on 26.3.1990, as a result of which the petition was withdrawn on 4.4.1990. Thereafter, the appellant filed the present petition against the respondent on 18.11.1992 and sought amendment in the main petition in the year 1996 for incorporating the ground of adultery. As per the Rule 10 of the Hindu ‘ Marriage (Punjab) Rules 1956, the adulterer is a necessary party and petition filed on the ground of adultery cannot proceed without impleading him as a party. Reference was made to D. Thomas v. Tara , wherein it was held that, “In fact, the prescription in Section 11 is a mandate which cannot be avoided by a husband seeking divorce on the ground of adultery. Where no such person, though known to the plaintiff, is made a party, the suit for dissolution is not maintainable in law. “Reference was also made to Ram Kumar @ Ramender Kumar v. Smt. Raksha @ Galabo , wherein it has been held as under:
Even otherwise, the prayer of the appellant for divorce on the ground of adultery cannot be allowed as he has not disclosed the name of the person with whom the respondent is having illicit relations nor such person has been made party in the petition filed by him. Rule 10 of the Hindu Marriage (Punjab). Rules, 1956 provides that if a petition is presented by husband for divorce on the ground of adultery, then he is required to implead the alleged adulterer, a co-respondent. It has been held in Parvati v. Shiv Ram 1988 Civil Court Cases 539 (H.P.) and Mirapala Venkataramana v. Mirapala Peddiraga II(2000) Divorce and Matrimonial Cases 40 that in a petition for divorce filed by the husband on the ground of adultery, it is necessary for the petitioner to implead the alleged adulterer as co-respondent. In case the husband has not impleaded the alleged adulterer, the petition filed by him is not maintainable being non joining of the necessary party.
17. In the instant case, Ashok Kumar the alleged adulterer, was not impleaded as a co-respondent by the appellant. The allegations of adultery given were not proved on the file. Rather the respondent has taken a specific stand that said Ashok Kumar is a friend of the appellant who was forcibly pushed in the room of the respondent to defame her in the society and to. create a ground of divorce. Due to this incident, she had filed a complaint under Sections 354/452 IPC against the appellant in which the charges were framed against him and the case has not so far been disposed of. Therefore, the appellant cannot take advantage of the fact that the respondent has filed a false complaint against him. Even according to the appellant himself, the respondent was still residing in his house when compromise was effected between them. AW1 Rajesh Sehgal categorically stated that when he visited the house of the appellant, his mother was ill and when the appellant asked the respondent to prepare tea, to which she refused to do so and there was exchange of words between the parties. This kind of incident cannot be termed as cruelty because the respondent wife was looking after her ailing mother-in-law, it is not possible that she would adopt hostile attitude towards the appellant. All the witnesses produced by the appellant are his friends. It is very easy for the witnesses of the appellant to toe the line of the appellant as per his wishes. In order to know the wear and tear in the family life, it is the members of the family who could be the best witnesses to throw light on the matrimonial relationship of the parties. But not a single witness of the family was examined by the appellant. The respondent was serving her mother-in-law in the year 1989 and even thereafter she was residing with the appellant upto 1990 in a joint house. Therefore, it cannot be said to be a case of desertion.
18. It is a case where the respondent was forced to live separately by the appellant by way of a compromise effected on 26.3.1990 in panchayat which was consented by him, therefore, it does not lie in the mouth of the appellant to state that she has withdrawn herself from the matrimonial obligations or society of the appellant. It is the appellant who was responsible for taking advantage of his own wrongs. Throughout the matrimonial life of the parties, the appellant was trying to get rid of the respondent by levelling false allegations against her. It is not disputed that the appellant is residing in the same vicinity where the respondent is residing and paying a sum of Rs. 900/-per month as maintenance as per the consented arrangement.
19. The appellant has duly proved on the file the agreement dated 26.3.1990 vide which the earlier petition for divorce was withdrawn. It was, thereafter, that the present petition for divorce was filed on 18.11.1992 on the grounds of desertion and cruelty but the allegation of adultery was not found mentioned therein. As per his own case, the appellant caught the respondent on 2.8.1992 in the company of Ashok Kumar with the help of his friends Sunil Kumar, Gurdial and Billa. This ground was available to him on the date of filing of the petition i.e. on 18.11.1992 but he added the same by way of amendment in the petition in the year 1996 as a counter-blast to the criminal complaint filed by the respondent-wife under Sections 354/452 I.P.C. on 12.8.1992. This ground was taken to put pressure on the respondent to withdraw the complaint filed against him.
20. It is a case where the parties are living separately on account of their mutual consent and agreement and it would not amount that the marriage of the parties has broken down and decree of divorce could be granted to the appellant on the grounds of desertion and cruelty. Reliance was placed to Balwinder Pal v. Anita Kumari (2007-1)145 P.L.R. 832, wherein it was held as under:
In the instant case, it has been found from the evidence on record that the appellant-husband is not willing at all to live with the respondent-wife any more. On the other hand, respondent-wife is still willing to live with her husband. In this background, in the facts enumerated above, the appellant-husband cannot get decree of divorce relying on the theory that the marriage between the parties has irretrievably broken down. Emphasis is from the case of Dipak Kumar Sarkar v. Smt. Sima Sarkar 2005(1) H.L.R. 730. In Birbal Goswami v. Indra Devi 1997 Marriage Law Journal 415, it was found that the wife is willing to live with the husband and the husband levelled false charges to get rid of her and it was held that he cannot seek divorce on that ground and dismissal of the divorce petition was upheld. In Rupinder Kaur v. G.S. Sandhu , it was held that assuming that the marriage had broken irretrievably, breakdown of marriage is no ground to dissolve the marriage.
21. In Naveen Kohli’s case (supra), the Apex Court has recommended to the Parliament to enact the ground of irretrievable broken-down marriage as a ground for divorce. This ground at present has not so far been available in the statute. It is a case where the husband has been found guilty of levelling false allegations against the respondent but miserably failed to prove any of the three grounds on which the dissolution of marriage was sought. The case of the appellant is also hit bySection 23 of the Hindu Marriage Act and he cannot be allowed to take advantage of his own wrongs.
In the light of the above discussion, the appeal fails and is dismissed, leaving the parties to bear their own costs.

Divorce on ground of mental disorder.

 Section 13(1)(iii) provides that, the respondent suffers from incurably unsound mind or has been suffering continuously or intermittently from mental disorder of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent. Therefore, it is clear that mere unsound mind is not a ground for divorce. It should be incurably unsound mind. Similarly, if a person is suffering from a mental disorder, that by itself is not a ground for divorce. The mental disorder should be of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent. Explanation to the said proviso explains the meaning of mental disorder. The expression ‘mental disorder‘ means mental illness, arrested or incomplete development of mind, psychopathic disorder or any other disorder of disability of mind and includes schizophrenia. It is in this background when he look at the material on record, the respondent for about 15 days did not have sleep, she was dull and depressed, she was not feeling happy, she was not active as before and she was getting fearful dreams. Once, the psychiatrist gave treatment, in a span of 15 days she attained normality. Therefore, she is not suffering from any mental disorder which justifies to grant a decree for divorce.

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IN THE HIGH COURT OF KARNATAKA AT BANGALORE
           Dated this the 25th day of March 2014
                         PRESENT
            The Hon'ble Mr. Justice N. KUMAR
                            AND
         The Hon'ble Mrs. Justice B.S. INDRAKALA
       Miscellaneous First Appeal No.3224/2012 (FC)

BETWEEN:

Shivajigouda,
S/o Nagappgouda, Aged about 43 years,
R/at Hosahalli Village, Anavatti - Hobli,
Taluk: Sorab - 577 413.                     ... Appellant

                (By Sri S.V.Desai, Advocate.)

AND:

Smt.Sunitha,
W/o Shivajigouda, Aged about 34 years,
C/o Kotrappagouda, Ground Floor,
Katavi Village, Telagadde-Post,
Jade-Hobli, Sorab Taluk - 577 419.              ... Respondent

      This Miscellaneous First Appeal is filed under Section
28 of Hindu Marriage Act against the judgment and decree
dated:15.06.2011 passed in M.C.No.36/2009 on the file of
Senior Civil Judge, JMFC, Soraba, dismissing the petition
filed under Section 13(1)(ia)(3) of Hindu Marriage Act for
dissolution of marriage.

       This appeal coming on for orders this day, N.Kumar J.,
delivered the following:
                                2


                        JUDGMENT
This is a husband’s appeal challenging the order passed by the Civil Judge (Sr.Dn.) & JMFC, Sorab dismissing his petition for divorce.
2. The appellant/petitioner married the respondent on 14.03.1998 according to the Hindu Custom. After marriage they resided together happily. Two sons by name Sanjay and Sandeep are born. The grievance of the petitioner/husband is that the respondent is suffering from mental disease. Because of her mental illness, she quarrels with him, attempts to assault him and hates him. This behaviour was brought to the notice of her parents. They took her back to their house and they assured that she would be alright. Before marriage itself, she was suffering from these ailments. Suppressing the same, they have performed the marriage. Petitioner also got her treated by a Psychiatrist at Shimoga. Inspite of the same, she is not as before. Thereafter, he took care of his wife with all love and affection, but because of her behaviour, it caused both mental and physical cruelty to him and therefore, he filed a petition for divorce under Section 13(1), (1a) and (3) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. After service of notice, she entered appearance and filed her statement of objections. She admitted the marriage, birth of two sons, she denied that she is suffering from any mental disease. Her younger son Sandeep was not well; he was suffering for months and therefore, he was taken to her parents house and treated at Sirsi and now, he has recovered. She is in no way caused any trouble to the petitioner. Petitioner has not taken her back to his house because he has an illicit relationship with another woman. Petitioner is the head of the family. He was the chairman of the Grama Panchayat. It is he who is suffering from mental pressure. On account of the same, he has treated the respondent with mental and physical cruelty. It is the petitioner who needs treatment from a psychiatrist. For the last one year, they are living separately. Petitioner is addicted to bad habits. He has kept the eldest son away from the respondent. She is ready and willing to live with the petitioner for the sake of the children and therefore, she sought for dismissal of the petition.
3. On the aforesaid pleadings, the trial Court framed the following two issues:
(1) Whether the petitioner is entitled for divorce as prayed for in the petition?
(2) What order?
4. The petitioner in order to substantiate his claim examined himself as PW1. He also examined three witnesses as PWs 2 to 4 and produced 9 documents which are marked as Exs.P.1 to P.9. The respondent was examined as RW1. She also examined 4 witnesses as RWs 2 to 5 and produced 17 documents which are marked as Ex.R.1 to R.17.
5. The trial court on consideration of the aforesaid oral and documentary evidence on record held that the petitioner has failed to establish the cruelty as well as the mental illness of the respondent and therefore, he is not entitled to a decree for divorce. Accordingly, the petition came to be dismissed.
6. Aggrieved by the said order, the petitioner is in appeal before this Court.
7. Learned counsel appearing for the appellant assailing the impugned order contended that the documentary evidence produced by the petitioner coupled with the evidence of the doctor who treated the respondent clearly establishes the unsound mind of the respondent and therefore, the order passed by the trial Court dismissing the petition for divorce requires to be interfered with.
8. We do not find any substance in the said contention. The undisputed evidence on record discloses that after the marriage the husband and wife lived happily and two sons were born i.e., from 1998 till 2008. The first son was born in 2001 and the second son was born in 2004. Though in the pleadings the petitioner accused the respondent of attempting to assault him, in the evidence he has not spoken about the said fact. The evidence on record shows the respondent was treated in Sridhar Nursing Home. The record issued by Sridhar Nursing Home which is marked as Exs.P. 8 and 9 shows that, on 15.07.2009 she was sleepless for 15 days, she was said to be dull and depressed, she did not feel happy, she talks less, she was not active as before, she got fearful dreams. Though the doctor who treated her was not examined, the doctor in the nursing home was examined, who on the basis of the record has deposed that after her examination in the hospital, she was given medicine and she was asked to come back after 15 days. Then when she came on 15.12.2009 she was examined and it was found that she had become normal. Therefore, no further treatment was prescribed. The doctor has also given a brief description of her physical condition, mental condition and the said evidence shows she is not suffering from any mental or physical ailment. Relying on the said legal evidence on record, the learned trial Judge rightly held that, neither the case of cruelty nor case of mental illness is made out by the petitioner/husband and therefore, he dismissed the petition. As the said finding is based on legal evidence, it cannot be found fault with. In fact, the Apex Court in the case of RAM NARAIN GUPTA vs RAMESWARI GUPTA reported in 1988 AIR 2260 has observed as under:

“10. The context in which the ideas of unsoundness of ‘mind’ and ‘mental-disorder’ occur in the section as grounds for dissolution of a marriage, require the assessment of the decree of the ‘mental- disorder’. Its degree must be such as that the spouse seeking relief cannot reasonably be expected to live with the order. All mental abnormalities are not recognized as grounds for grant of decree. If the mere existence of any degree of mental abnormality could justify dissolution of a marriage few marriages would indeed, survive in law.”

9. Section 13(1)(iii) provides that, the respondent suffers from incurably unsound mind or has been suffering continuously or intermittently from mental disorder of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent. Therefore, it is clear that mere unsound mind is not a ground for divorce. It should be incurably unsound mind. Similarly, if a person is suffering from a mental disorder, that by itself is not a ground for divorce. The mental disorder should be of such a kind and to such an extent that the petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent. Explanation to the said proviso explains the meaning of mental disorder. The expression ‘mental disorder’ means mental illness, arrested or incomplete development of mind, psychopathic disorder or any other disorder of disability of mind and includes schizophrenia. It is in this background when he look at the material on record, the respondent for about 15 days did not have sleep, she was dull and depressed, she was not feeling happy, she was not active as before and she was getting fearful dreams. Once, the psychiatrist gave treatment, in a span of 15 days she attained normality. Therefore, she is not suffering from any mental disorder which justifies to grant a decree for divorce.
10. In the light of the aforesaid law declared by the Apex Court and the statutory provisions, the learned Judge of the Court below on proper appreciation of the evidence on record, rightly held that the petitioner has not made out a ground for divorce.
11. We do not see any ground to interfere with the well considered order of the Court below. Accordingly, appeal is dismissed.
Sd/-
JUDGE Sd/-

Divorce on the ground of desertion under The Hindu Marriage Act 1955

.merits of the case of the jurisdiction of the Court. Though failure to frame a issue that arises on the basis of the pleadings of the rival parties would amount to an error being committed by the Trial Court, that by itself will not be a ground to reverse the impugned judgment. It is necessary to note here that during pendency of the proceedings, the respondent had made another prayer seeking grant of divorce on the ground of desertion. Such prayer was trial permitted to be added. The parties thereafter went to and contested the proceedings. While the respondent led evidence for grant of divorce, the appellant led evidence to demonstrate that the respondent was not entitled for said relief. Therefore, the prayer for divorce was, in fact, contested as being the main relief sought in said proceedings. Further, assuming that the issue pertaining to claim for restitution of conjugal rights was framed and answered against the respondent, the same would not have resulted in dismissal of petition in view of the other prayer in the proceedings. Similarly, the nature of evidence for seeking the relief of restitution of conjugal rights and for seekingdivorce on the ground of desertion would naturally be of a distinct nature.

In said judgment, the alleged desertion took place on 19-2-1993. On 31-3-1993 the husband filed a petition for restitution of conjugal rights and in the alternate, sought a decree for divorce on the ground of desertion. In that context, it was observed that as the alleged desertion took place on 19-2-1993 and the petition was filed on 31-3-1993, no petition for divorce on theground of desertion could have been entertained as the desertion itself was for a period of less than two years. In that context, it was observed that the prayer for grant of divorce itself was not tenable in law. The aforesaid judgment does not assist the appellant in view of its peculiar facts. In the present case, the prayer for grant of divorce has been made by way of amendment on the basis of prior desertion of two years. Hence, the ratio in the aforesaid case is not applicable to the case in hand.
——————————————————————————————————
IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE AT BOMBAY
                        NAGPUR BENCH : NAGPUR.




                                             
                       FIRST APPEAL NO.308 OF 1998

      APPELLANT:             Smt.   Uttara   Praveen   Thool,
                             aged 28 years, C/o Manoharrao
                             Bhavade, resident of Girad,




                                            
                             Tq.     Samudrapur,     District
                             Wardha.

                                   -VERSUS-




                               
      RESPONDENT:            Praveen S/o Bhanudas Thool, age
                             37   years,    Occupation-Service,
                             resident    of   House    No.4/44.
                 ig          Raghuji Nagar, Nagpur.



      Mrs. V. Thakre Advocate for the appellant.
               
      Mrs. R. S. Sirpurkar Advocate for respondent.


             CORAM: B.P.DHARMADHIKARI AND A.S. CHANDURKAR,JJ.
DATE OF RESERVING THE JUDGMENT: 20TH NOVEMBER 2013. DATE OF PRONOUNCING THE JUDGMENT: JANUARY,2014. ORAL JUDGMENT : (Per A. S. Chandurkar, J)
1. The appellant – wife has preferred the present appeal under Section 19 of the Family Courts Act 1984 being aggrieved by the judgment dated 8-6-1998 passed by the learned Judge, Family Court, Nagpur whereby the petition filed by the respondent – husband for grant of divorce has been allowed. Herein after the wife will be referred to as the appellant and the husband will be referred to as the respondent.
       f                                                          2/52

      2.             The   marriage     between        the   parties         was




                                                                   
solemnized on 2-12-1992. Out of said wedlock, the appellant gave birth to a son on 27-8-1993. According to the respondent, after the birth of said child the appellant did not return to her matrimonial home for no justifiable reason. Hence, on 22-12-1994, the respondent preferred Hindu Marriage Petition under Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 (hereinafter refer to as the said Act) bearing No.364 of 1994 for restitution of conjugal rights. During pendency of said proceedings, the respondent pleadings and in the alternate sought a decree for amended his divorce on the ground of mental cruelty on the basis of desertion by the appellant. The parties went to trial and on the basis of the material on record, the Family Court, Nagpur by judgment dated 8-6-1998 was pleased to allow the petition filed by the respondent and thereby passed a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty.
3. Before considering the challenge to the aforesaid decree, it would be necessary to note the rival pleadings of the parties and also the other material on record on the basis of which the impugned decree has been passed. In the petition filed under Section 9 of the said Act, it was pleaded by the respondent that from the second month of the marriage itself, the appellant was requesting for grant of fa308.98.odt 3/52 divorce. It was stated that the appellant disliked the idea of a joint family and hence, the respondent started living separately from his mother and brother. It is further pleaded that after the birth of their son on 27-8-1993, the appellant’s father took her to their native place and since then for no justifiable reason, the appellant had deprived the respondent of her company and had failed to fulfill her obligation as wife. It was further pleaded that on 23-12-1993, the appellant along with her father, her uncle and few other persons came in a Jeep to the respondent’s place. After some talks, the appellant’s father informed the respondent that it was not possible for the appellant to live with the respondent. Despite efforts through mediators, the appellant did not return to the matrimonial home and hence, on 22-12-1994 aforesaid petition seeking restitution of conjugal rights was filed by the respondent.
4. The appellant filed her written statement below Exh.14. She denied the averments made in the petition filed by the respondent. According to the appellant, the respondent used to treat her cruelly and keep her without food for 2 to 3 days. The respondent used to beat her and abuse her. It was further pleaded that in July, 1993, the respondent had called the appellant’s mother and had demanded fa308.98.odt 4/52 Rs.4,000/- from her and threatened that if said demand was not met, the mother should take back her daughter. It is stated that on 17/18-8-1993, despite intervention of Panchas, the respondent did not listen to them due to which the appellant was forced to return to her father’s home. Despite a message being given about the birth of a child, the respondent did not accept the sweets that were sent in that regard. The respondent did not attend the ceremony that was held for naming the child.
Ultimately, on 23-12-1993 though the appellant had returned to the respondent’s house along with their child, the appellant was not permitted to enter the house in the presence of various persons. It was further pleaded that on 2-3-1994, the appellant had filed proceedings for grant of maintenance under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and with a view to defeat the appellant’s right, the present proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights was filed. The appellant, therefore, prayed for dismissal of the proceedings.
5. During pendency of the proceedings before the Family Court, the respondent moved an application below Exh.16 to amend the petition by deleting the prayer for restitution of conjugal rights and substituting the same by the prayer for grant of divorce. The learned Judge of the Family Court by fa308.98.odt 5/52 order dated 20-5-1996 disposed of the aforesaid application by directing the respondent to file another application for seeking divorce as an alternate relief.
On 25-4-1996, the marriage Counselor submitted his report below Exh.24 in which he opined that amicable settlement between the parties was not possible.
Subsequently, the respondent moved another application below Exh.28 for amendment of the aforesaid ig petition. By said respondent made another prayer that in case it was application, the not possible to grant the relief of restitution of conjugal rights, a decree of divorce on the ground of mental cruelty be passed. The aforesaid application was filed on 13-6-1996. After considering the reply of the appellant filed below Exh.32, the learned Judge of the Family Court by order dated 19-10-1996 allowed the aforesaid application for amendment holding that the respondent was entitled to make an alternate prayer. Accordingly, the proceedings as filed stood amended in view of the aforesaid order. In view of addition of the prayer for grant of divorce, the proceedings were renumbered as Petition No.A/604/1996. The appellant amended her written statement and opposed the alternate relief sought by the respondent.
       fa308.98.odt                                                                 6/52

      6.               The     respondent         examined       himself        below




                                                                          
Exh.60, his brother-in-law – Manishankar Patil below Exh.69 and another brother-in-law Vitan Borkar below Exh.70. The appellant examined herself below Exh.74, her father Manohar Shevde below Exh.83, Shiodas Betal, her maternal uncle and one Ashok Naranje below Exh.85. On the basis of the aforesaid pleadings and the evidence led by the respective parties, the learned Judge of the Family Court recorded a finding that the appellant had treated the respondent with cruelty, that she had withdrawn from the respondent’s society without any reasonable cause and hence, the respondent was entitled for a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty. Thus, by judgment dated 8-6- 1998, the marriage between the parties was dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty.
7. On behalf of the appellant – wife, it was urged by her learned Counsel Mrs. V. Thakre that the Family Court erred in granting the decree for divorce on the ground of cruelty. It was submitted that though initially the petition was filed under Section 9 of the said Act for restitution of conjugal rights, no issue in that regard was framed while deciding the said proceedings. It was submitted that by seeking restitution of conjugal rights, the respondent had condoned all earlier incidents that had occurred and hence, on said count, a decree for divorce could not fa308.98.odt 7/52 have been passed. It was further submitted that in proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights, there could not be a prayer for grant of divorce on the ground of cruelty as such pleadings were mutually destructive and prayers were opposed to each other. It was further submitted that though the statutory period of two years as contemplated under Section 13 of said Act was not complete when the initial proceedings were filed, by permitting the petition to be amended for seeking the relief of divorce, the support respondent had got over aforesaid statutory bar. In of the aforesaid submission, the learned Counsel for the appellant relied upon the following judgments.
[1] AIR 2006 Himachal Pradesh 33, Baldev Raj v.
Smt. Bimla Sharma.
[2] AIR 212 Rajasthan 8, Reema Bajaj v. Sachin Bajaj.
[3] 2000(4) Mh.L.J. 244, Sanjay Chandrakant Mehta vs. Malaben Sanjay Mehta.
[4] (2005)9 Supreme Court Cases 600, Uma Parekh alias Pinku versus Ajeet Pareek Alias Govind Pareek and others.
[5] AIR 1988 Supreme Court 839, Tejinder Kaur v.
Gurmit Singh.
[6] AIR 1990 Bombay 84, Smt. Smita Dilip Rane v.
Dilip Dattaram Rane.
       fa308.98.odt                                                                      8/52




                                                                                
      [7]    AIR 1989 Supreme Court 1477, Smt. Lata                                    Kamat

             v. Vilas.




                                                       
      [8]    AIR 2009 Andhra Pradesh 54, Lakkaraju

Pradma Priya v. Lakkaraju Shyam Prasad. [9] AIR 1975, Supreme Court 1534(1) Dr. N. G.
Dastane v. Mrs. S. Dastane. Respondent.
On the other hand, Mrs. R. Sirpurkar, the learned Counsel appearing for the respondent –
husband supported the impugned judgment. It was sought submitted that though initially the respondent had restitution of conjugal rights by filing aforesaid proceedings under Section 9 of the said Act, in view of the stand of the appellant before the Marriage Counselor that she was not ready to reside with the respondent and in view of absence of any justifiable cause assigned by the wife for living separately from her husband, the respondent was compelled to seek divorce on the ground of cruelty. It was submitted that though various allegations were made by the appellant in her pleadings as regards ill-treatment and cruelty on the part of the respondent, the same were not substantiated by leading any cogent evidence. It was urged that failure to frame the issue as regards the restitution of conjugal rights did not have the effect of vitiating the impugned judgment. It was further submitted that the parties were living separately fa308.98.odt 9/52 since August 1993 i.e. after the birth of the child and hence, the Family Court was justified in passing the decree for divorce. It was further submitted that though the appellant had pleaded that there was a demand for dowry, no evidence in that regard was led by the appellant. On the contrary, it was the appellant who was guilty of deserting the respondent for no justifiable cause and the same, therefore, entitled the respondent for grant of divorce on account of desertion resulting in cruelty. It was further breakdown of igurged that there was an marriage and both parties having been irretrievable separated for almost 20 years, they could not be expected to live together as husband and wife. By filing an additional affidavit on record, it was submitted that the respondent had contracted the second marriage on 30th of November 1998. The learned Counsel for the respondent has relied upon the following judgments in support of her submissions: [1] AIR 1992 Madhya Pradesh 105, Smt. Bhavna Adwani v. Manohar Adwani.
[2] [1999 (2) Civil JJ 65] Smt. Shashi Shah V.
Kiran Kumar Shah.
[3] 1992 Mh.L.J. 997, Kishorilal Govindram Bihani vs. Dwarkabai Kishorilal Bihani. [4] II (1991) DMC 326 Sanyogta Verma versus Vinod Verma.
      [5]    II(1985) DMC 329, Suren Chandrakant Shah





       fa308.98.odt                                                               10/52

             versus Rita Suren Shah.




                                                                         
      [6]    2012(7) ALL MR 282, Smt. Bhawna w/o

Vijaykumar Sakhare vs. Vijaykumar S/o Tarachand Sakhare.
[7] [2006(1) Mh.L.J., Durga Prasanna Tripathy vs. Arundhati Tripathy.
[8] II (2006) DMC 107 (DB)Iffath Jamalunnisa versus Mohd. Suleman Siddiqui.
[9] 2007(3) Mh.L.J. 1, Rishikesh Sharma vs. Saroj Sharma.
[10] (2007) 4 Supreme Court Cases 511, Samar Vs. Jaya Ghosh.
Ghosh [11] (2007) 4 Supreme Court Cases 548, Masooda Parveen Versus Union of India and others. She has, therefore, sought dismissal of the aforesaid appeal.
8. After hearing the respective Counsel and in view of the material on record, the following points arise for determination.
(1) Whether failure on the part of the Family Court to frame the issue pertaining to the claim for restitution of conjugal rights has resulted in vitiating the judgment? (2) Whether a decree for divorce could be sought as a relief in a petition filed under Section 9 of the said Act for restitution of conjugal rights?
fa308.98.odt 11/52 (3) Whether on an amendment permitting a prayer for grant of divorce in such proceedings being granted, the same relates back to the date of filing of the proceedings? (4) Whether decree for divorce needs to be granted on the ground that there has been an irretrievable breakdown of the marriage? (5) Whether the respondent is entitled for a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty?
(6) What relief?
9. ig As to point no.1: The respondent had filed the present proceedings under Section 9 of the said Act seeking restitution of conjugal rights. In paragraph nos.6,9 & 10 of the petition, he had made various assertions in support of aforesaid relief. In reply thereto, the appellant had denied the claim as made by the respondent. This, therefore, gave rise to an issue pertaining to the claim of the respondent for restitution of conjugal rights. Such issue, however, was not framed by the learned Judge of the Family Court. It is, therefore, necessary to consider whether failure to frame said issue has resulted in vitiating the impugned judgment.
In this regard, the provisions of Section 99 of the Code of Civil Procedure may be noticed.
      Under     Section    99,    no     decree      can       be    reversed      or

      substantially       varied    on    account         of    any      defect    or





       fa308.98.odt                                                                     12/52

      irregularity          in     any    proceedings            not    affecting       the




                                                                               
merits of the case of the jurisdiction of the Court. Though failure to frame a issue that arises on the basis of the pleadings of the rival parties would amount to an error being committed by the Trial Court, that by itself will not be a ground to reverse the impugned judgment. It is necessary to note here that during pendency of the proceedings, the respondent had made another prayer seeking grant of divorce on the ground of desertion. Such prayer was trial permitted to be added. The parties thereafter went to and contested the proceedings. While the respondent led evidence for grant of divorce, the appellant led evidence to demonstrate that the respondent was not entitled for said relief. Therefore, the prayer for divorce was, in fact, contested as being the main relief sought in said proceedings. Further, assuming that the issue pertaining to claim for restitution of conjugal rights was framed and answered against the respondent, the same would not have resulted in dismissal of petition in view of the other prayer in the proceedings. Similarly, the nature of evidence for seeking the relief of restitution of conjugal rights and for seeking divorce on the ground of desertion would naturally be of a distinct nature.
      Such    evidence           could    not     be      overlapping.          In    these

      circumstances,              therefore,         it     is     clear       that      the





       fa308.98.odt                                                                   13/52

parties have contested the proceedings with regard to the prayer for grant of divorce, mere failure on the part of the learned Judge of the Family Court in framing the issue as regards restitution of conjugal rights would not have the result of vitiating the impugned judgment. In any event, the appellant before commencement of the evidence did not raise any grievance before the Family Court that the issue pertaining to restitution of conjugal rights had not been framed. Hence, taking an overall view of the matter, we find that the failure on the part of the Family Court in framing the issue as regards the claim for restitution of conjugal rights has not resulted in vitiating the impugned judgment. Point no.1, therefore, stands answered accordingly.
10. As to Point No.2: This takes us to consider the next point as to whether a decree for divorce could be sought as an alternate relief in a petition filed for restitution of conjugal rights. While a petition for restitution of conjugal rights is required to be filed under Section 9 of the said Act, a petition seeking divorce is required to be filed on the grounds stipulated in Section 13 of the said Act. In the present case, initially, the proceedings were filed merely for restitution of conjugal rights. By subsequently amending the aforesaid proceedings, the relief for grant of fa308.98.odt 14/52 divorce on the ground of cruelty was sought to be made. As noted above, the requirements of Section 9 and Section 13(1)(i-b) of the said Act are distinct.
According to the learned Counsel for the appellant, the relief of restitution of conjugal rights cannot go hand in hand with the relief of divorce. Both reliefs were diametrically opposite. In support of the aforesaid submission, the learned Counsel for the appellant relied upon the decision of Himachal Pradesh High Court in Baldeoraj (Supra).
In said judgment, the alleged desertion took place on 19-2-1993. On 31-3-1993 the husband filed a petition for restitution of conjugal rights and in the alternate, sought a decree for divorce on the ground of desertion. In that context, it was observed that as the alleged desertion took place on 19-2-1993 and the petition was filed on 31-3-1993, no petition for divorce on the ground of desertion could have been entertained as the desertion itself was for a period of less than two years. In that context, it was observed that the prayer for grant of divorce itself was not tenable in law. The aforesaid judgment does not assist the appellant in view of its peculiar facts. In the present case, the prayer for grant of divorce has been made by way of amendment on the basis of prior desertion of two years. Hence, the ratio in the aforesaid case is not applicable to the case in hand.
fa308.98.odt 15/52 The learned Counsel for the appellant has then relied upon the decision of the Hon’ble Apex Court in the case of Uma Parekh (supra). Perusal of aforesaid decision reveals that though the proceedings were for restitution of conjugal rights, an alternate relief was being sought without there being any specific pleadings or without invoking the powers of the Court under Section 13 of the said Act.
decision has no application to the case in hand.
                                                               The   

petition for restitution of conjugal rights. Reliance in this regard was placed on the decision of the Madhya Pradesh High Court in Bhavna Adwani (supra). In aforesaid decision, it was observed that there was no legal prohibition under the said Act for filing proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights or in the alternate, for a decree of divorce on the ground of desertion. It was held that if at the stage of filing of the proceedings, the petitioner had sought restitution of conjugal rights and in the alternate, if the other party continued to refuse to reside together, the marriage could be dissolved if a case fa308.98.odt 16/52 for desertion was made out. The ratio of the aforesaid decision, therefore, applies to the facts of the present case.
The decision of the Allahabad High Court in Binod Kumar (Supra) is also pressed into service. In the said case, the Family Court permitted conversion of proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights to a petition for divorce. It was Court held that such course was permissible by taking support of the provisions of Section 23A of the said Act.
      The present
                 ig      case       being    one for grant

relief and there being no question of conversion of of separate the proceedings as originally filed, the aforesaid judgment has no application to the case in hand.
In Kishorilal (supra) in proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights, an alternate plea for divorce on the ground of desertion was made. On this being objected in appeal, the Division Bench of this Court observed that it did not intend to go into the said technicalities and preferred to decide the actual issue on merits. Hence, said decision is also of no assistance to the respondent.
As held in Bhavna Adwani (supra), there is no legal bar to make a prayer for grant of divorce in proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights. Though the petitioner in a given case may seek restitution of conjugal rights initially, on account of the conduct of the other side, such petitionerfa308.98.odt 17/52 could urge that the other relief of divorce on the ground of desertion could, however, be granted. If in law separate proceedings for such a relief could be filed, there is no reason not to permit a party from seeking such reliefs in the same proceedings. Ultimately, even for succeeding in the grant of such relief, it would be necessary for such party to prove the claim made therein.
                                   
      12.             Similarly,         we find that the appellant's

      objection
                 ig    to    amendment        and     to

additional prayer seeking the relief of decree of insertion of an divorce on account of cruelty is also unsustainable. A civil suit to certain extent, is bound by the procedural laws and in province of amendment, by Order 2 Rule 2, Order 6 Rule 17 of CPC and the Limitation Act,1963. The Hindu Marriage Act,1955 does not prescribe any outer period to prove the desertion or cruelty, if the cause continues. The said Act only prohibits filing of premature proceedings and after expiry of said bar-period, the cause in most of the matrimonial disputes may be continuous accruing till the normal ties are not restored. Section 21 only makes CPC applicable as far as possible and not otherwise.
The legislative intent to attempt to put an end to the matrimonial dispute in one proceeding and to avoid multiplicity is also perceived in fa308.98.odt 18/52 Section 23 and Section 23A of the said Act. Duty of Court to attempt to reconciliate or divorce by mutual consent or then an irretrievable breakdown of marriage are some of the features peculiar to this jurisdiction. Thus, primacy is given to restoration of normal marital ties and ,if not possible, to grant other appropriate relief of separation or divorce. There is no principle that husband, having failed to secure the relief of restitution, can thereafter, never, file the proceedings for divorce on the available grounds. Non execution of a decree for the restitution of conjugal rights may also lead to grant of divorce. Hence, the concept like changing the nature of suit etc. may be inherently foreign to and not applicable in matrimonial matters. Perspective that due to change in nature of suit the defense may receive severe set back may not be available at all in matrimonial jurisdiction. However, not much arguments are advanced on these lines before us and hence, we leave this aspect open for its due consideration in an appropriate case. But, on the date on which the respondent husband sought the leave to amend in present matter, it was also open to him, to institute fresh proceedings for grant of divorce on the ground of cruelty and continuous desertion. As institution of the fresh case was not prohibited, he could have very well sought leave to amend and add an additional relief in fa308.98.odt 19/52 the alternative in very same proceeding.
13. Husband-original petitioner was attempting to show unwarranted withdrawal from society by his wife i.e. appellant. Even while amending, he placed his unequivocal desire to have restitution and hence, qualified the amended prayer clause by employing the words “if not possible”. The respondent wife in said proceeding can not object to such prayers as mutually destructive prayers. She can not be heard to say that she will not cohabit and will not permit the husband to pray for dissolution of the marriage.
She can not turn a Nelson’s eye to the forgiveness offered by husband by filing a case for restitution against her and at the same time, frown upon the request for putting an end to matrimonial relationship because of her wrong offered to be condoned. Appellant can not approbate and reprobate at the same time. We find that the respondent husband has also continued with his bonafides while seeking the amendment and it is not open to appellant to urge any prejudice, though factually none is caused to her. The admitted date on which appellant left the matrimonial house is 23.8.1993 and the parties have not resided together thereafter. Child is born to the couple on 27.8.1993 and the proceedings for restitution are instituted on 22.12.1994. After filing of a written statement by wife turning down fa308.98.odt 20/52 his forgiveness and failure before the Marriage Counselor, leave to amend was sought and granted. In amended plea also, desire to condone is expressed and divorce is sought, if the condonation does not evoke required response. On that day, it was open to husband to file fresh proceedings for divorce on the strength of desertion and cruelty. Hence, by amendment, the time spent in litigation in seeking response to conditional forgiveness between 22.12.1994 till October, 1996 is thus sought to be put to use permitted by law. Appellant wife can not on one hand refuse to cohabit and on other hand, insist for institution of fresh case on the ground of desertion and cruelty. Encouraging such a defence will be to put a premium on party at fault and an injustice to a bonafide spouse who desires to resume cohabitation. It will be defeating the very scheme of jurisdiction with the Court under the said Act. We therefore express reservations on relevance/correctness of view reported at AIR 2012 Raj 8 (Reema Bajaj v. Sachin Bajaj) relied upon by the learned counsel for the appellant which considers Sections 9,13 and 13A of the said Act with Order 6 Rule 17, Order 7 Rule 7 of Civil Procedure Code and holds that an application for restitution of conjugal rights cannot be converted into application for divorce by way of amendment since prayer for restitution of conjugal rights and divorce are fa308.98.odt 21/52 diametrically opposite prayers. It is concluded by the learned Single Judge there that allowing such an amendment results into change in nature of matrimonial application. Moreover, in present matter, the learned Judge of the Family Court by order dated 20-5-1996 disposed of the earlier application for amendment filed by respondent husband by directing him to file another application for seeking divorce as an alternate relief. This order or liberty has remained unchallenged.
ig Hence, we hold that in the proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights under Section 9 of the said Act, the relief of divorce could be sought by the petitioner. Point No.2 stands answered accordingly.
14. As to Point No.3: According to the learned Counsel for the appellant, the learned Judge of the Family Court erred in permitting the proceedings to be amended so as to incorporate the alternate prayer for grant of divorce. According to the learned Counsel in view of the provisions ofSection 13(1) (i-b) of the said Act for constituting desertion as a ground for divorce, one of the parties has to desert the other for a continuous period of not less than two years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition. It was submitted that though the original proceedings were filed on 22-12-1994, by fa308.98.odt 22/52 permitting the respondent to amend the proceedings by adding the prayer for divorce on the ground of desertion, the Family Court has permitted the respondent to agitate a ground of divorce that was not permissible in law to be relied upon when such proceedings were filed. In other words, there was no desertion for period not less than two years immediately preceding the filing of the petition i.e. on 22-12-1994.
The argument though attractive, on further consideration the same does not merit its acceptance. The case of the respondent is that the appellant had left the matrimonial home in the last week of December 1993. The respondent thereafter filed application for amendment on 13-6-1996 and same was allowed on 19-10-1996. By said amendment the respondent was permitted to raise the ground of divorce on account of desertion under Section 13(1) (i-b) of the said Act. The effect of allowing the amendment on 19-10-1996 would be that it would be necessary for the respondent to prove that for a continuous period of two years prior thereto, the appellant had deserted the respondent. The amendment, therefore, would necessarily be required to have taken effect from the date it was allowed i.e. on 19-10-1996 and the same would not relate to the date of filing of the petition. The learned Judge of the Family Court while considering this issue has fa308.98.odt 23/52 observed that said ground of divorce was available to the respondent for seeking divorce. The aspect of avoiding multiplicity of proceedings has also been taken into account while allowing the amendment.
In this regard, the learned Counsel for the respondent has relied upon a judgment of the learned Single Judge of this Court in Suren (supra). It was held by the learned Single Judge that granting such an amendment would not relate back to the date of filing of the petition and the ground sought to be raised would become available only from the date of grant of such amendment. In the said case also, the ground of desertion was added by way of amendment during pendency of the matrimonial proceedings. It was observed that the ground that was initially not available could be permitted to be added on the basis of subsequent conduct of the parties and the same would not relate back to the date of filing of the petition but, said ground would become available from the date of grant of the amendment. In our view, the aforesaid observations of the learned Single Judge are correct and we respectfully affirm the same. The aforesaid decision of the learned Single Judge has been also followed by the Delhi High Court in Sanyogta (supra).
Therefore, the amendment permitting raising of a ground of divorce during pendency of the proceedings would not relate back to the date of fa308.98.odt 24/52 filing of the proceedings, but would become available from the date it is granted. Hence, Point No.3 stands answered accordingly.
15. As to Point No.4: According to the learned Counsel for the respondent, the present is a case where there has been an irretrievable breakdown of the marriage between the parties and hence, on said count itself, a decree for divorce needs to be passed. It is submitted that the parties have been living separately for last almost considering their conduct, the only inference that 20 years and can be drawn is that the marriage between the parties has broken down. In this regard, the learned Counsel placed reliance upon the decisions of the Hon’ble Apex Court in Durga (supra)and Rishikesh (supra)as well as the judgment of Andhra Pradesh High Court in Iffath (supra).
Irretrievable breakdown of marriage is not a ground envisaged by Section 13 of the said Act for grant of divorce. Separation of the parties for a long period of time without any justifiable cause amounting to desertion could be a ground for passing a decree of divorce under Section 13(1) (i-b) of the said Act. As observed by the Hon’ble Apex Court in Chetandass Vs. Kamladevi, AIR 2001 SC 1709, it would not be appropriate to apply any submission of “irretrievably broken marriage” as a strait jacket fa308.98.odt 25/52 formula for grant of divorce. Thus, it is clear that mere submission that the marriage has irretrievably broken down cannot lead this Court to pass a decree for divorce without examining if any ground for divorce has been made out or not. Such view is already taken by Division Bench of this Court in Bajrang Revdekar Vs. Pooja Revdekar AIR 2010 Bom 8. We would, therefore, prefer to examine whether the respondent has made out a case for divorce on the ground of desertion. Point No.4, therefore, stands answered accordingly.
16. As to Point No.5: The respondent has sought divorce on the ground of desertion in terms of provisions of Section 13(1)(i-b) of the said Act. The provision contemplates desertion for a continuous period of not less than two years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition. The explanation to the expression “desertion” means the desertion of the petitioner by the other party without reasonable cause and without the consent or against wish of such party. As held hereinabove, by order dated 19-10-1996, the respondent was permitted to make a prayer for grant of divorce by allowing the amendment. Hence, the aspect of desertion will have to be considered for a period commencing two years prior thereto i.e. from 19-10-1994 onwards. In other fa308.98.odt 26/52 words, the respondent would be required to prove that the appellant had deserted him from 19-10-1994 onwards without reasonable cause and without his consent or against his wish.
Before examining the aspect of cruelty, it would be necessary to consider the observations of the Hon’ble Apex Court made in N. G. Dastane (Supra). In the aforesaid decision, it has been held that firstly the burden to prove the grounds on which relief is sought in a matrimonial proceeding rests on the petitioner. It has been further held that normal rule that governs civil proceedings namely that a fact can be said to be established if it is proved by a preponderance of probabilities is also applicable in such cases. There is no need to expect the petitioner to establish a particular ground “beyond reasonable doubt”, but the Court must be satisfied on a preponderance of probabilities that a case for relief has been made out. These aspects, therefore, are required to be considered while examining the matter on merits.
      17.             Though             the        proceedings             as





       fa308.98.odt                                                                27/52

      initially       filed    were       for     restitution         of




                                                                           
conjugal rights, the respondent has also sought divorce on the ground of mental cruelty arising out of the appellant’s conduct and behaviour as well as by the fact of desertion. In reply to the aforesaid pleadings, the appellant has denied that the respondent is entitled to claim divorce on aforesaid grounds. In her specific pleadings, the appellant has stated that she was being illtreated by the respondent. It has been pleaded that the respondent and his mother used to beat the appellant, the respondent used to drive out the appellant from the house when it was raining. There was also a threat given by the respondent of throwing acid on the appellant. There are also pleadings regarding demand of dowry by the respondent. It is stated that the respondent had called the mother of the appellant and had demanded Rs.4,000/-. It is thereafter pleaded that a demand of Rs.4,000/- towards the expenses of delivery were also made to the appellant’s father. It is then specifically pleaded that on 23-12-1993 when the appellant’s father and uncle along with other Panchas had come to fa308.98.odt 28/52 the house of the respondent, the appellant who was accompanying the aforesaid persons was beaten in presence of said persons.
The respondent in his evidence has stated that he was ready to take the appellant back, but it was her father who was not ready to send the appellant back. He has further deposed that he had issued notices on 28-1-1994 (Exh.61) and 18-2-1994 (Exh.64) calling upon the appellant to resume ig cohabitation. In examination, he has denied suggestions made the cross regarding demand of Rs.4,000/- to the appellant’s mother. There are, however, no suggestions given to him with regard to the case of the appellant on the point of illtreatment namely driving her out from the house in the rains, throwing of acid or beating her in the presence of all on 23-12-1993. The appellant in the course of her examination-in-chief has referred to the threat given by the respondent of throwing acid, demanding Rs.4,000/- from the appellant’s father and also her father being driven out when he had gone to invite the respondent for naming ceremony. In the cross examination, she has stated that fa308.98.odt 29/52 though she received the notices (Exh 61 &
64) from the respondent, she did not return to the matrimonial house though the said notices were not for divorce. She has further admitted that she had not sent any letter to her parents informing them about ill-treatment or that she had requested them to take her back. She has stated that she was employed in the year 1996 as a teacher and even after marriage she had continued service record.
                       using      her    maiden     name     in     the
               
                       The        appellant's          father          was

examined and in his cross examination he admitted that after the marriage, his daughter lived with the respondent only for 10 months. He further admitted that he did not lodge any report regarding illtreatment of his daughter or regarding demanding of dowry. Similarly, Shiodas (Exh.84) and Ashok (Exh.85) who had accompanied the appellant’s father during talks to the respondent were also examined. In their examination-in-chief, however, there is no reference to the appellant being beaten in the presence of Panchas on 23-12-1993.
       fa308.98.odt                                                                  30/52

      18.            In so far as the aspect of ill-




                                                                            
      treatment        of        the    appellant             by      the

      respondent       is      concerned       except       the     bare




                                                    
statement of the appellant, there is no material on record to come to the conclusion that the appellant was, in fact, ill-treated by the respondent. Though it was alleged that the appellant was driven out of the matrimonial home and she was required to go out when it was raining, no neighbour ig has been examined aforesaid plea. In so far as the allegation to support that on 23-12-1993, the appellant was threatened and beaten in presence of panchas, the two witnesses examined by the appellant namely Shiodas (Exh.84) and Ashok (Exh.85) do not refer to aforesaid threats or beating of the appellant in their deposition. Even the appellant’s father Manohar (Exh.83) does not say anything in this regard. In fact, no suggestions are given to the respondent that on said date, he threatened or ill treated the appellant in presence of the Panchas. Therefore, there is no material on record to hold that the respondent had ill treated or beaten the appellant on 23-12-1993. The appellant’s father in his cross examination fa308.98.odt 31/52 has categorically admitted that he did not lodge any report regarding either demand of dowry or ill-treatment at the hands of the respondent. It may be noted that it was the case of the appellant that she had left the matrimonial home on account of the ill-
treatment at the hands of the respondent.
In so far as the demand of the amount of Rs.4000/- by the respondent is concerned, the appellant has pleaded that in July 1993, the respondent had called the mother of the appellant and had demanded Rs.4000/-. It is further pleaded that similarly demand was thereafter made from the appellant’s father as expenses for delivery. The mother of the appellant to whom the first demand of Rs.4000/- was made has not been examined. Except the statement of the appellant’s father, there is no other material on record to hold that there was any such demand made by the respondent especially when the appellant’s father did not lodge any report in that regard. Hence, except bare statements on the part of the appellant and her father, the same having been denied by the respondent in his cross examination, there is no other material on fa308.98.odt 32/52 record to hold that such demand of Rs.4000/- was made by the respondent. Thus, it has to be held that the appellant has failed to prove the plea of illtreatment by the respondent or the demand of an amount of Rs.4000/- by the respondent.
The Division Bench of this Court in Bhawna (supra) has held that making false and unsubstantiated charges against other party as regards demand of dowry would amount to cruelty.
19. Having held that the appellant had failed to prove either illtreatment or demand of the amount of Rs.4000/- by the respondent, it would now be necessary to consider whether the appellant had deserted the respondent without reasonable cause and without his consent or against his wish in terms of the Explanation to the provisions of Section 13(1)(i-b) of said Act. The reasons assigned by the appellant for leaving matrimonial home are on account of the illtreatment and demand of Rs.4000/- by the respondent. Other than the aforesaid two reasons, no other reason has been assigned for leaving matrimonial home. The fa308.98.odt 33/52 respondent in his cross examination has stated that on the day the appellant left the matrimonial home, they were living separately from his mother and brother and hence, when he returned home, he did not find anybody at home. It is also necessary to note that the respondent by sending two notices (Exh.61 & Exh.64) had called upon the appellant to rejoin his company. There was, however, no positive response from the appellant.
      the
                
             proceedings
                          Thereafter, during pendency of

                                  when    the     parties        were
               
      referred       to    the    Marriage      Counselor,         the

appellant stated before him that she was not desirous of returning to the matrimonial home and that she would do so only after her son completed the age of 18 years. The appellant, therefore, has failed to place any justifiable reason on record or to assign any reasonable cause to desert the respondent. The reasons given for leaving the matrimonial home have not been proved by the appellant and hence, it has to be held that the appellant has deserted the respondent “without reasonable cause” in terms of the Explanation to Section 13(1)(i-b) of said Act. It is, therefore, clear that though the appellant left the fa308.98.odt 34/52 matrimonial home before the birth of her son on 27-8-1993, as stated above, considering the desertion for the period from 19-10-1994 onwards, it is clear that the appellant has left the matrimonial home and deserted the respondent “without reasonable cause”.
20. It is not in dispute that appellant did not agree to resume cohabitation even on trial basis and expressed that she would consider going to her husband’s house only after her son became major i.e. on or after 27.8.2011. She has left the matrimonial house behind her husband on 23.8.1993 and hence, burden was upon her to bring on record the justification therefor. Not only this, if she had any desire to resume matrimonial relationship, steps taken by her in that direction should have been pleaded and proved. Her readiness to cohabit pleaded in written statement is subject to the undertaking of husband and circumstances justifying that need are not proved by her. Effort to reunite alleged by her on 23.12.1993 does not substantiate any need of undertaking and that effort also is not brought on record with proper evidence. On the contrary, it militates with her other plea of demand of money and cruelty which again is not proved. Why she could notfa308.98.odt 35/52 agree to temporary joint stay on trial basis or required time till her son attained 18 years of age even to think of returning to her matrimonial house or wanted an unreasonably long time to even consider its pros and cons is not clarified. She appears not interested in cohabitation sand also in dissolving the marriage. It is obvious that this is nothing but cruelty as also desertion. Even before the Family Court or then before this Court, she never expressed her design to revive the relationship. She is only or opposing every move of her husband without any rhyme reason. Marriage in question has lost its propriety and there is no point in continuing the relationship. It will, therefore, have to be held that the appellant having failed to assign any reasonable cause for desertion, the respondent is entitled for a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty on account of said desertion.
21. At this stage, it is necessary to refer to the contention raised by the appellant regarding the aspect of condonation of acts by the respondent. In view of the provisions of Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act, the Court is required to be satisfied that the party seeking divorce fa308.98.odt 36/52 on the ground of cruelty has not in any manner condoned the cruelty. The expression “or condoned the act or acts complained of”
as appearing in Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act is required to be considered.
Law on the point of condonation is laid down by the Division Bench of this Court in 2000 (1) Mh.L.J. 429 (Harvinder Singh Marwah Vs. Charanjit Kaur). There the cruelty was found established in Divorce Petition filed by husband on the ground of cruelty. Till the respondent wife left the marital home, they were co-habiting together and were having physical relations. Question involved was whether the order of learned Principal Judge dismissing the petition on the ground of condonation of cruelty needed to be set aside? While answering the question in affirmative, this Court held in para 11 that “For two young persons to have physical relations is quite common. But that itself would not lead to an inference of condonation. Even that case is not put forth by the other side. She has left the marital home since 24.4.1992 and has stayed away since then.”
       fa308.98.odt                                                                   37/52

                     In        Ravi Kumar v. Julmidevi, (2010) 4 SCC




                                                                             
476, at page 478 Hon. Apex Court has observed that:
“9. Several questions cropped up in the course of hearing before the High Court. One of them being whether in view of filing of a proceeding for restitution of conjugal rights, the appellant had condoned all alleged prior acts of cruelty of the wife.
10. The High Court after considering some decisions came to a finding that by filing a petition under Section 9 of the Act, the appellant had condoned the earlier alleged acts of cruelty of the respondent wife. Condonation is basically a question of fact. This Court finds that the reasoning of the High Court on condonation in the facts of this case is correct.”
In Naveen Kohli v. Neelu Kohli, (2006) 4 SCC 558, at page 568, Hon. Apex Court observed in para 42 that ” In England, a view was at one time taken that the petitioner in a matrimonial petition must establish his case beyond a reasonable doubt but in Blyth v. Blyth5 (All ER at p. 536 H-I) the House of Lords held by a majority that so far as the grounds of divorce or the bars to divorce like connivance or condonation are concerned, “the case, like any civil case, may be proved by a preponderance of probability”.
fa308.98.odt 38/52 In N.G. Dastane (Dr) (supra), in para 55 to 58, Hon. Apex Court observes:-
“55. Condonation means forgiveness of the matrimonial offence and the restoration of offending spouse to the same position as he or she occupied before the offence was committed. To constitute condonation there must be, therefore, two things: forgiveness and restoration. The evidence of condonation in this case is, in our opinion, as strong and satisfactory as the evidence of cruelty.
But that evidence does not consist in the mere fact that the spouses continued to share a common home during or for some time after the spell of cruelty. Cruelty, generally, does not consist of a single, isolated act but consists in most cases of a series of acts spread over a period of time. Law does not require that at the first appearance of a cruel act, the other spouse must leave the matrimonial home lest the continued cohabitation be construed as condonation. Such a construction will hinder reconciliation and thereby frustrate the benign purpose of marriage laws.
56. The evidence of condonation consists here in the fact that the spouses led a normal sexual life despite the respondent’s acts of cruelty. This is not a case where the spouses, after separation, indulged in a stray act of sexual intercourse, in which case the necessary intent to forgive andfa308.98.odt 39/52 restore may be said to be lacking. Such stray acts may bear more than one explanation. But if during cohabitation the spouses, uninfluenced by the conduct of the offending spouse, lead a life of intimacy which characterises normal matrimonial relationship, the intent to forgive and restore the offending spouse to the original status may reasonably be inferred. There is then no scope for imagining that the conception of the child could be the result of a single act of sexual intercourse and that such an act could be a stark animal act unaccompanied by the nobler graces of marital life. One might then as well imagine that the sexual act was undertaken just in order to kill boredom or even in a spirit of revenge. Such speculation is impermissible. Sex plays an important role in marital life and cannot be separated from other factors which lend to matrimony a sense of fruition and fulfillment. Therefore, evidence showing that the spouses led a normal sexual life even after a series of acts of cruelty by one spouse is proof that the other spouse condoned that cruelty. Intercourse, of course, is not a necessary ingredient of condonation because there may be evidence otherwise to show that the offending spouse has been forgiven and has been received back into the position previously occupied in the home. But intercourse in circumstances as obtain here would raise a strong inference of condonation with its dualfa308.98.odt 40/52 requirement, forgiveness and restoration. That inference stands uncontradicted, the appellant not having explained the circumstances in which he came to lead and live a normal sexual life with the respondent, even after a series of acts of cruelty on her part.
57. But condonation of a matrimonial offence is not to be likened to a full Presidential pardon under Article 72 of the Constitution which,once granted, wipes out the guilt beyond the possibility of revival. Condonation is always subject to the implied condition that the offending spouse will not commit a fresh matrimonial offence, either of the same variety as the one condoned or of any other variety. “No matrimonial offence is erased by condonation. It is obscured but not obliterated”. Since the condition of .forgiveness is that no further matrimonial offence shall occur, it is not necessary that the fresh offence should be ejusdem generis with the original offence. Condoned cruelty can therefore be revived, say, by desertion or adultery.
58. Section 23(1)(b) of the Act, it may be urged, speaks of condonation but not of its revival and therefore the English doctrine of revival should not be imported into matters arising under the Act. Apparently, this argument may seem to receive some support from me circumstance that under the English fa308.98.odt 41/52 law, until the passing of the Divorce Reform Act, 1969 which while abolishing the traditional bars to relief introduces defences in the nature of bars, at least one matrimonial offence, namely, adultery could not be revived if once condoned. But a closer examination of such an argument would reveal its weakness. The doctrine of condonation was established by the old ecclesiastical courts in Great Britain and was adopted by the English courts from the canon law.
“Condonation” is a technical word which means and implies a conditional waiver of the right of the injured spouse to take matrimonial proceedings. It is not “forgiveness” as commonly understood. In England condoned adultery could not be revived because of the express provision contained in Section 3 of the Matrimonial Causes Act, 1963 which was later incorporated into Section 42(3) of the Matrimonial Causes Act, 1965. In the absence of any such provision in the Act governing the charge of cruelty, the word “condonation” must receive the meaning which it has borne for centuries in the world of law. “Condonation” under Section 23(1)(b) therefore means conditional forgiveness, the implied condition being that no further matrimonial offence shall be committed.”
The Division Bench of the Delhi High Court in Mat. App. (FC) No. 3/2013 and CM 7056 and 7057/2013-Pushpa Rajai Vs. Jai fa308.98.odt 42/52 Prakash Lalwani recently accepted the same meaning by following N. G. Dastane (supra). In AIR 2013 Chh 88 (Smt. Mamta Namdeo Vs. Ghanshyam Bihari Namdeo), the Chhattisgarh High Court also adopted the same view.
22. Thus, to constitute condonation in terms of Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act, there must be forgiveness and restoration. The question, however, is whether for constituting condonation, the conduct of only one of the parties is to be considered or whether the conduct of both parties is to be taken into account. In other words, whether the unilateral act of one of the parties is to be considered or whether the bilateral acts of both parties are to be considered. If for constituting condonation, there must be forgiveness and restoration, it is obvious that bilateral acts of both parties will be required to be taken into account while considering the aspect of condonation. Forgiveness and restoration cannot be unilateral and for it to be effective and fruitful, it has to be bilateral. One party to the marital tie may be ready to forgive and restore the same.
       fa308.98.odt                                                                43/52

      One    of      the    modes       could    be     by     filing




                                                                          
      proceedings          for    restitution         of     conjugal

rights. The other party may, however, not be ready to forgive and restore said tie. The proceedings filed by one party for restitution could be opposed by the other by refusing to rejoin the marital tie. The same would not result in condonation in as much as there would be no consensus between the parties for the purposes of forgiveness and sided.
restoration.
                  Hence,     the
                                    It

                                    aspect
                                           would

                                                 of
                                                      remain

                                                       condonation
                                                                   one-
               
will have to be adjudicated after taking into account the bilateral acts of both parties. The offer made by one party and the reciprocal conduct of the other will have to be viewed together while determining codonation in terms of Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act.
What we can gather from the above precedents is that condonation implies knowledge to the husband of being wronged by wife, conscious election by him not to exercise the legal right flowing therefrom,to forgive the wife conditionally and the same resulting in the resumption of normal relationship between the couple.
fa308.98.odt 44/52 Thus, it is resumption of normal marital ties with mutual understanding which assumes significance. In matter like one at hand, where the desertion continues without even a day’s break, the conditional forgiveness offered by the husband is not reciprocated by the respondent wife. On the contrary, she refuses to take advantage of the opportunity available and persists in desertion. As such, condonation which technically is a bilateral act or decision, never occurred and insistence upon the said aspect by the appellant wife is misconceived and ill advised.
In Baldev Raj (supra), the parties were married on 7-8-1998. After about seven months, the wife left the matrimonial home, but returned back in May 1989. Thereafter, she again left her husband after a week and later on rejoined him. On 19-2-1993, she again deserted him. The husband made efforts from 20-2-1993 to 28-2-1993 to bring her back, but was not successful. On 23-3-1993, the husband went to his wife’s place to get her back but was not unsuccessful. He, therefore, filed proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights on 31-3-1993 with an alternate fa308.98.odt 45/52 prayer for dissolving the marriage by a decree of divorce. In that context, relying upon the Division Bench judgment of said High Court in Nirmala Devi Vs. Ved Prakash AIR 1993 HP 1 , it was held in Baldev Raj (supra) that filing of petition for restitution of conjugal rights implied condonation of all earlier acts of cruelty. Similar view has been taken in Reema Bajaj (supra), where amendment was sought to convert conjugal ig proceedings rights into for restitution proceedings of for divorce on the ground of desertion. The learned Single Judge of the Rajasthan High Court observed that filing of proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights amounted to condonation or forgiveness of the alleged act of cruelty till the date of filing of the amendment application. With utmost respect, we are unable to agree with aforesaid views. The unilateral act of filing petition for restitution of conjugal rights ignoring the response of the other side by itself would not amount to condonation for the purposes of Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act. When satisfaction in terms of said provision is to be arrived at by the Court, the approach fa308.98.odt 46/52 and response of both parties will have to be taken into account.
23. In the present case, in view of filing of the petition for restitution of conjugal rights by the respondent, the appellant has submitted that the same amounts to the respondent condoning the alleged act of desertion and cruelty.
In the proceedings for restitution of conjugal rights, the appellant filed her written statement and opposed the relief sought by the respondent. The offer made by the respondent for restituting conjugal rights by filing petition under Section 9 of the said Act was not accepted by the appellant who replied that the respondent was not entitled for said relief. Prior thereto, the response of the appellant to the two notices sent by respondent (Exh.61 & 64) was also not positive. In her cross- examination, the appellant stated that it was suggested to the parties to live together on trial basis and inform the Court. She has also admitted that she had stated before the Marriage Counsellor that she would consider going back to her husband after her son would complete the fa308.98.odt 47/52 age of 18 years. Thus, neither the pleadings of the parties nor the evidence of the appellant indicate any bilateral act or conduct so as to record a finding that there was forgiveness and restoration between the parties and the same amounted to condonation of the act of desertion on the part of the appellant.
                                  
      24.             Further,      the      appellant      has     opposed        the

      petition
                 ig   for    divorce      on    the    ground

It was, therefore, necessary for her to have pleaded of cruelty.
and proved the fact that the respondent had in any manner condoned the alleged cruelty. There is, however, no evidence whatsoever on record to hold that the respondent had in any manner condoned the desertion by the appellant. The appellant has not placed any material on record to indicate that the respondent had condoned the aforesaid desertion on the part of the appellant. As stated herein above, the ground of cruelty on account of desertion having been permitted to be raised on 19-10-1996, the act of condoning such desertion should be from 19-10-1994 onwards on the part of the respondent. In other words, the appellant was required to show that after 19-10-1994, the respondent had in any manner condoned the unwarranted desertion of the appellant. However, there is hardly any material on record to come to fa308.98.odt 48/52 such a conclusion. We, therefore, record our satisfaction in terms of Section 23(1)(b) of the said Act that the respondent has not in any manner condoned the desertion on the part of the appellant from 19-10-1994 onwards in any manner whatsoever.
25. In Samar Ghosh (Supra) relied upon by the learned Counsel for the respondent, it has been observed in para 101 that where there has been a long period of continuous separation, it could be fairly concluded that the matrimonial bond is beyond repair. In such situation by refusing to sever that tie, the same could lead to mental cruelty. From the evidence on record, it is clear that after being married on 2-12-1992 the parties lived together only for a period of 10 months. They have resided separately since then, now almost for 20 years. We have found that the material on record is sufficient to hold the respondent entitled for a decree of divorce on the ground of desertion. The learned Judge of the Family Court has found that the appellant had failed to prove various allegations made by her which were reasons for deserting the fa308.98.odt 49/52 respondent. We find that the aforesaid conclusion has been arrived at on the basis of the material on record and we find no reason whatsoever to strike a discordant note. Accordingly, we affirm the conclusion arrived at by the Family Court and hold the respondent entitled for a decree of divorce.
26. ig The last grievance on behalf of the appellant namely re-marriage by the respondent during pendency of the appellant is now required to be noticed. According to the learned Counsel for the appellant, though the present appeal was pending, the respondent remarried on 30-11-1998. According to the learned Counsel, the aforesaid conduct of the respondent was required to be taken note of. Relying upon the decisions of the Hon’ble Apex Court in Tejinder Kaur (Supra), Lata Kamat (Supra), and of the Division Bench of this Court in Smita Rane (Supra), it was submitted that the appeal preferred by the appellant would not be rendered infructuous. On the other hand, it was submitted by the learned Counsel for the respondent that while fa308.98.odt 50/52 admitting the present appeal, Rule on stay was issued by this Court on 3-8-1998. Said Rule on stay came to be discharged after hearing both sides on 11-9-1998. It was submitted that it was open for the appellant to have sought review of aforesaid order, but the same was not done. It was, therefore, submitted that in these circumstances, as interim stay was not granted during pendency of the appeal, the respondent had remarried on 30-11-1998.
The Hon’ble Apex Court in Tejinder Kaur (Supra), Lata Kamat (Supra) as well as this Court in Smita Rane (Supra) have held that the appeal as filed under Section 28 of said Act would not become infructuous only on account of the remarriage during pendency of said appeal. In view of the aforesaid law as laid down, we have considered the challenge to the decree passed by the Family Court on merits and we have not treated the appeal as filed to have become infructuous. We have thereafter found that the decree passed by the Family Court granting divorce to the respondent is legal and proper. We, accordingly, answer point No.5 as above and hold that thefa308.98.odt 51/52 respondent is entitled for a decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty.
27. In view of our aforesaid findings, we find no merit in the challenge to the decree passed by the Family Court. Both the parties have filed affidavits on record on the aspect of amount of maintenance. From the material on record, it is clear that the appellant was serving as an Anganwadi Sevika at Samudrapur and is getting Rs.4000/- per month. The son born on 27-8-1993 has now attained the age of majority. The respondent in his affidavit has stated that he is paying an amount of Rs.1500/- towards maintenance to the appellant and her son in addition to an amount of Rs.896/- that is being deducted from his salary. This arrangement is in force since 8-12-2003 as per orders passed on the pursis signed by both sides. Said arrangement can, therefore, be directed to be continued till it is modified in accordance with law. Hence, while dismissing the appeal, it is directed that the arrangement as jointly arrived at by the parties and as ordered by this Court on fa308.98.odt 52/52 8-12-2003 shall continue to operate till it is modified in accordance with law. Point No.6 stands answered accordingly.
28. In the result, the following order is passed:
[i] The appeal challenging the judgment dated 8-6-1998 passed by the Family Court, Nagpur in igPetition dismissed No.A-604/1996 with parties stands left to bear their own costs.
[ii] The respondent shall continue to pay a sum of Rs.1500/- per month in addition to the deduction of Rs.896/- per month from his salary to the appellant in terms of joint pursis dated 8-12-2003 till said arrangement is duly modified in accordance with law.

 

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Divorce Laws in India.

29_12_2013-divorce29_s

Divorce laws. Here is the list of various divorce laws in India for various religionsIndia has different divorce laws for different religions. Almost all the religions has their own divorce laws in India which are used among themselves. There are separate laws for inter-cast or inter-religion marriages.Divorce laws in India for Hindus is described in Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Hindu Marriage Act is also used for Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains as they don’t have their own separate marriage and  divorce laws. Here is the list of various divorce laws in India for various religions

Hindu (including Sikhs, Jains and Buddists) : Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Muslims : Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939

Christians : Indian Divorce Act, 1869

Parsis : The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936

Inter-Cast of Inter-Religion : Special Marriage Act, 1954

The Indian Divorce, Act Special Marriage Act, the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act and the Hindu Marriage Act, provide for annulment of the marriage, since its very inception, on grounds such as the non-fulfillment of mandatory conditions.. The Indian Divorce act requires confirmation by the High Court to come into effect.

Grounds for Divorce in India

In India divorce is granted mainly on 4 different grounds.

1. Adultery

2. Desertion

3. Cruelty

4. Impotency

5. Chronic Diseases

 

Divorce on ground of desertion,mental cruelty and false criminal complaints by wife.

 

Divorce on desertion,mental cruelty and false criminal complaints by wife.

Conjugal Rights of Marriage:  

. The respondent also denied conjugal rights to the

appellant so as to coerce him to stay separate from his mother. On

the above referred allegations touching mental agony and torture

divorce petition was filed.

 

Criminal Complaints filed by wife.

. The appellant immediately sent a notice on 9.5.03 asking the

respondent to join the company and cohabit with the appellant but

instead of joining the company of the appellant the respondent

initiated criminal case under section 498A of IPC not only against

the appellant and his mother but three other near relations who

were staying separately including the uncle, aunt and husband of

the aunt. All the persons accused of having committed the offence

under section 498A of IPC were arrested by the police and they

were detained in custody.

 

Mental torture:

. According to the learned counsel for the appellant arrest

and detention of the family members and near relations of the

appellant in false case has caused him utmost mental torture.

 

Desertion :

 

———————————————————————————————————

“There can not be absolutely two opinions regarding

legal proposition that if the wife filed false criminal cases

against the husband, her conduct does amount to causing

mental cruelty and torture to him, therefore, the husband

becomes entitled for a decree of divorce. The necessary

condition for constituting such legal cruelty is that the wife

has indulged into making false and reckless allegation by

filing false complaint to the police. A singular complaint filed

by wife under section 498A of IPC against the husband and

his family members can not indicate the tendency of wife to

indulge into making such false allegation.”

We fail to understand the logic behind the reasoning adopted by

the family court to hold that a singular complaint of this nature

under section 498A of IPC resulting in arrest and detention of the

family members and relatives thereby causing utmost

embarrassment, humiliation and suffering does not constitute

mental cruelty. It is illogical that more than one complaint are

necessary to be filed to constitute mental cruelty. In our view,

embarrassment, humiliation and suffering that is caused on account

of arrest and detention of appellant and his family members and

relatives in a false case does constitute mental cruelty to enable the

husband to seek decree of divorce on this sole ground. In our

considered opinion, the approach of the family court is wholly

perverse and the reasoning cannot be sustained in law. In regard to

other circumstances the family court has observed :

————————————————————————————

IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE AT BOMBAY

CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION

 

FAMILY COURT APPEAL NO. 66 OF 2006

 

Ajay Ashok Khedkar …. ….. ….. ….. Appellant.

V/s

Sou. Laleeta Ajay Khedkar….. …. ….. ….Respondent.

 

Mr.Hitesh Vyas, Adv. For the appellant.

Mr.Sachin S. Pande, Adv. For the respondent.

CORAM: A.P.DESHPANDE AND SMT. R.P. SONDURBALDOTA, JJ.

Date:12th April, 2010.

ORAL JUDGMENT: (Per Deshpande, J.)

 

This is family court appeal filed by the unsuccessful husband

whose petition for divorce has been dismissed by the Family Court.

The appellant and the respondent’s marriage was solemnized as per

Hindu rites and customs at Pune on 8.3.2001. The marriage was

an arranged marriage and after the marriage the respondent came

to reside with the appellant. The appellant’s mother resides along

with the appellant. The petition for divorce was filed on the

ground of mental cruelty under section 13(1)(ia) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

 

2. According to the petitioner on the wedding night itself the

respondent alleged that she was deceived in regard to income of

the appellant. The respondent allegedly stated that the salary of

the appellant as informed to her was much more than what he was

actually receiving. It is also alleged that with reference to the

number of spectacle the respondent taunted the appellant by saying

that she was made to perform marriage with a blind person.

Touching those issues the respondent allegedly started quarreling

with the petitioner and insulting the petitioner. It is the case of the

appellant that since beginning the behaviour of the respondent was

arrogant and rude and immediately after the marriage the

respondent was insisting that the petitioner should stay separately

from his mother in one of the two flats owned by the appellant’s

family situated at Raviwar Peth, Pune. According to the appellant

he tried to convince the respondent that his mother is old and there

is no one else to look after her and hence refused to stay separately.

It is also the case of the appellant that the respondent gave threats

that she would commit suicide if the appellant fails to reside

separately. The respondent also denied conjugal rights to the

appellant so as to coerce him to stay separate from his mother. On

the above referred allegations touching mental agony and torture

divorce petition was filed.

3. Sometime in December 2002 the respondent went to the

house of her parents for delivery. She delivered a girl child on

26.2.03. Despite passage of enough time the respondent did not

join the company of the appellant. According to the appellant

because of the insistence on the part of respondent to stay

separately the marital life was disturbed and peace and harmony

was lost.

On 3.5.03 the father of the respondent brought the

respondent to the house of the appellant but without meeting the

appellant or his mother respondent’s father went away. On 6.5.03

the respondent called her parents and brother at the house of the

appellant. The near relations of the respondent quarreled with the

petitioner and his mother and after creating a scene threatened the

appellant that they would implicate the appellant and members of

his family in false criminal cases. So threatening the appellant,

father and brother of the respondent took her away along with

them. While leaving the appellant’s residence they said that only if

he resides separately the respondent will be sent back. The

appellant immediately sent a notice on 9.5.03 asking the

respondent to join the company and cohabit with the appellant but

instead of joining the company of the appellant the respondent

initiated criminal case under section 498A of IPC not only against

the appellant and his mother but three other near relations who

were staying separately including the uncle, aunt and husband of

the aunt. All the persons accused of having committed the offence

under section 498A of IPC were arrested by the police and they

were detained in custody. This is the main circumstance which is

relied upon by the learned counsel for the appellant to contend that

lodging of false case which resulted in arrest and detention of

family members of the appellant is singularly sufficient enough to

hold that the respondent is guilty of causing mental cruelty and

agony to the appellant and thus pressed for grant of decree of

divorce. According to the learned counsel for the appellant arrest

and detention of the family members and near relations of the

appellant in false case has caused him utmost mental torture.

During pendnecy of divorce petition the said criminal case came to

be decided by a judgment dated 13.5.05 by Judicial Magistrate,

First Class, Pune acquitting the appellant and all his family

members from the charge under section 498A of IPC.

4. Perusal of the judgment clearly reveals that the prosecution

utterly failed to prove the case put forth by the complainant. The

Judicial Magistrate has recorded categoric finding that the

complainant’s own testimony falsifies the prosecution case that the

complainant was treated cruely and was harassed by the accused

persons with a view to coerce her and her parents to meet their

unlawful demand of Rs.50,000/.

The Magistrate has totally

disbelieved the version of the complainant/wife and has acquitted

the accused persons. On a careful reading of the judgment

rendered in the case of prosecution under section 498A of IPC one

thing is crystal clear and it can be safely assumed that the wife had

filed a false case not only against her husband and motherinlaw

but had unnecessarily roped in other near relations. It is obvious

that on account of arrest and detention of the husband and his

family members respondent has treated the appellant with utmost

mental cruelty and the appellant has suffered agony. It will not be

out of place to mention that the complaint filed by the wife was

calculatedly designed in as much as it was a sort of counter blast to

the divorce petition filed by the husband. The appellant had filed

divorce petition on 16.6.03 whereas the complaint was lodged by

the respondentwife

on 11.7.03.

5. Learned counsel for the appellant submits that the appellant

and his family members including ladies who did not stay along

with the appellant were arrested and detained causing utmost

humiliation and embarrassment and agony to the appellant. This

solitary incidence would itself constitute mental cruelty even if

other circumstances are not taken into account and thus the trial

court has erred in law in dismissing the divorce petition. Para 29 of

the judgment of family court deals with this aspect of the matter by

observing :

“There can not be absolutely two opinions regarding

legal proposition that if the wife filed false criminal cases

against the husband, her conduct does amount to causing

mental cruelty and torture to him, therefore, the husband

becomes entitled for a decree of divorce. The necessary

condition for constituting such legal cruelty is that the wife

has indulged into making false and reckless allegation by

filing false complaint to the police. A singular complaint filed

by wife under section 498A of IPC against the husband and

his family members can not indicate the tendency of wife to

indulge into making such false allegation.”

We fail to understand the logic behind the reasoning adopted by

the family court to hold that a singular complaint of this nature

under section 498A of IPC resulting in arrest and detention of the

family members and relatives thereby causing utmost

embarrassment, humiliation and suffering does not constitute

mental cruelty. It is illogical that more than one complaint are

necessary to be filed to constitute mental cruelty. In our view,

embarrassment, humiliation and suffering that is caused on account

of arrest and detention of appellant and his family members and

relatives in a false case does constitute mental cruelty to enable the

husband to seek decree of divorce on this sole ground. In our

considered opinion, the approach of the family court is wholly

perverse and the reasoning cannot be sustained in law. In regard to

other circumstances the family court has observed :

“At the most one can infer that this conduct of the

respondent may have caused some disharmony between the

couple but in no way it can be said that it was sufficient to

constitute a mental cruelty to petitioner or his mother.”

Without deliberating on all the circumstances in detail we are of

the clear view that cumulative effect of the behaviour and conduct

of the respondent is good enough to draw an inference that

respondent has caused utmost mental pain and suffering which

constitute mental cruelty to the appellant and hence the appellant

is entitled for decree of divorce on the ground of cruelty.

6. This brings us to the consideration of question of granting

maintenance to the girl child who is aged about 8 years. The

family court in exercise of powers under section 24 had granted

interim maintenance of Rs.700/p.

m. whereas this Court by an

interim order has raised it to Rs.1000/p.

m. The appellant so also

the respondent are both gainfully employed. They are earning in

the range of Rs.5000 to 7000 per month each. The child is in

custody of the respondentmother.

Learned counsel for the

appellant on instructions from his client who is present in the court

submitted that the appellant would pay a sum of Rs.1.5 lacs

towards permanent alimony for the maintenance of child. Having

found the said amount insufficient we persuaded the counsel for

the appellant to raise the amount so that monthly interest on the

said amount works out in the range of Rs.2000 per month. The

mother of the appellant has come forward to contribute further

sum of Rs.1.5 lacs towards maintenance of the child. In our view if

the appellant pays sum of Rs.3 lacs by way of permanent alimony

for the maintenance of child the said amount if kept in fixed

deposit can fetch interest of Rs.2000/per month and the same

could be utilized by the respondent for upbringing of the daughter.

In the result we pass the following order:

(i) The marriage of the appellant and respondent stands dissolved by a decree of divorce under section 13(1)(ia);

(ii) The appellant shall pay sum of Rs.3 lacs by way of permanent alimony for the maintenance of the girl child. The said amount of Rs.3 lacs shall be invested in fixed deposit in a nationalized bank and the respondent is permitted to withdraw the interest accrued thereon quarterly. The amount of Rs.3 lacs shall be invested in the fixed deposit within two months from today in the name of the minor child and the respondent would be shown as her guardian;

(iii) The said sum of Rs.3 lacs shall be kept invested in fixed deposit till the child attains majority.

(iv) Appeal is allowed with no order as to costs.

 

At this stage the learned counsel for the respondent seeks stay of this order. Having regard to the peculiar facts and circumstances we do not find any reason to stay the impugned order. Hence the prayer is rejected.